ДЛЯ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕНИЯ, ЧТО ВЫ СТАРШЕ 18-ТИ, ПОЖАЛУЙСТА, АВТОРИЗИРУЙТЕСЬ ЧЕРЕЗ ВК
Practice: Is obesity contagious? Practice: Race, socioeconomic status, and nutrition. Practice: Romantic and sexual networks of adolescents. Practice: Marijuana usage as social behavior.
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Practice: Functions of the basilar membrane. Practice: Phantom limb pain among veterans. Practice: Congenital analgesia. Practice: Diminished sensory input and the enjoyment of food. Practice: Taste disorders and their causes. Practice: Matchboxes and problem solving.
Practice: Identifying intelligence types to increase student success. Practice: Linguistic patterns of English and Navajo speakers.Urban structure is the arrangement of land use in urban areasin other words, how the land use of a city is set out. Urban structure can also refer to urban spatial structurewhich concerns the arrangement of public and private space in cities and the degree of connectivity and accessibility.
This model was the first to explain distribution of social groups within urban areas. Based on one single city, Chicagoit was created by sociologist Ernest Burgess  in According to this model, a city grows outward from a central point in a series of concentric rings. The innermost ring represents the central business district. It is surrounded by a second ring, the zone of transition, which contains industry and poorer-quality housing.
The third ring contains housing for the working-class and is called the zone of independent workers' homes. The fourth ring has newer and larger houses usually occupied by the middle-class. This ring is called the zone of better residences.
The outermost ring is called the commuter 's zone. This zone represents people who choose to live in residential suburbs and take a daily commute into the CBD to work. A second theory of urban structure was proposed in by an economist named Homer Hoyt.
Certain areas of a city are more attractive for various activities, whether by chance or geographic and environmental reasons. As the city grows and these activities flourish and expand outward, they do so in a wedge and become a sector of the city.
If a district is set up for high income housing, for example, any new development in that district will expand from the outer edge. To some degree this theory is just a refinement on the concentric model rather than a radical restatement. Both Hoyt and Burgess claimed Chicago supported their model.
Urban Geography Models
Burgess claimed that Chicago's central business district was surrounded by a series of rings, broken only by Lake Michigan. Hoyt argued that the best housing developed north from the central business district along Lake Michigan, while industry located along major rail lines and roads to the south, southwest, and northwest. Calgary, Alberta almost perfectly fits Hoyt's sector model. Geographers Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman developed the multiple nuclei model in The Pornhub team is always updating and adding more porn videos every day.
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All Professional Homemade.Starting in the 20th century, a number of urban planning theories came into prominence and, depending on their popularity and longevity, influenced the appearance and experience of the urban landscape.
The primary goal of city planning in the midth century was comprehensiveness. An increasing recognition of the interdependence of various aspects of the city led to the realization that land use, transport, and housing needed to be designed in relation to each other.
The rational model was briefly hegemonic, but this scientific approach to public-policy making was quickly challenged by critics who argued that the human consequences of planning decisions could not be neatly quantified and added up. The modernist model, involving wholesale demolition and reconstruction under the direction of planning officials isolated from public opinioncame under fierce attack both intellectually and on the ground.
Most important in undermining support for the modernist approach was urbanologist Jane Jacobs. Jacobs criticized large-scale clearance operations for destroying the complex social fabric of cities and imposing an inhuman orderliness.
Rather than seeing high population density as an evil, she regarded it as an important factor in urban vitality. She considered that a lively street life made cities attractive, and she promoted diversity of uses and population groups as a principal value in governing urban development.
According to Jacobs, urban diversity contributes to sustainable growth, whereas undifferentiated urban settings tend to depend upon unsustainable exploitation, exhibited in the extreme form by lumber or mining towns that collapse after the valuable resources have been removed.
Jacobs was not alone in her criticism. Beginning in the s, urban social movements, at times amounting to insurrection, opposed the displacements caused by large-scale modernist planning. In cities throughout the United States and Europe, efforts at demolishing occupied housing provoked fierce opposition.
Within developing countries, governmental attempts to destroy squatter settlements stimulated similar counteroffensives. Within developing countries, however, the modernist concepts of the earlier period still retained a significant hold. Thus, for example, China, in preparation for the Beijing Olympics ofengaged in major displacement of its urban population to construct roads and sports facilities, and it likewise developed new commercial districts by building high-rise structures along the functionalist Corbusian model.
The ways in which planning operated at the beginning of the 21st century did not conform to a single model of either a replicable process or a desirable outcome. Within Europe and the United States, calls for a participatory mode—one that involved residents most likely to be affected by change in the planning process for their locales—came to be honoured in some cities but not in others.
The concept of participatory planning has spread to the rest of the world, although it remains limited in its adoption. Generally, the extent to which planning involves public participation reflects the degree of democracy enjoyed in each location. Where government is authoritarianso is planning. In sum, the enormous variety of types of projects on which planners work, the lack of consensus over processes and goals, and the varying approaches taken in different cities and countries have produced great variation within contemporary urban planning.
Nevertheless, although the original principle of strict segregation of uses continues to prevail in many places, there is an observable trend toward mixed-use development—particularly of complementary activities such as retail, entertainment, and housing—within urban centres.
Urban planning. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction The development of urban planning Early history The era of industrialization Urban form Zoning and subdivision controls New towns The scope of planning Postwar approaches Planning and government Competing models Contemporary planning Changing objectives New pluralism.
Load Previous Page. Competing models Starting in the 20th century, a number of urban planning theories came into prominence and, depending on their popularity and longevity, influenced the appearance and experience of the urban landscape. Load Next Page. More About. National Geographic - Urban Planning.Urban Talent Management, Utah's top booking agency, has been booking models and actors for 23 years. During that time, Urban has created an unparalleled client and talent database. Urban boasts an amazing team of booking agents lead by Tina Bullen who has been in the industry for over 30 years and specifically, has been booking talent for 23 years.
Our bookers have over 50 years of combined experience in the modeling and acting industry. As a result, our clients trust us to manage the casting and booking process because we provide the perfect talent for any project. As a full service agency, Urban represents only professionally trained models and actors. Urban's talent database includes models, actors, kids, fitness talent, voiceover talent, specialized talent including snowboarders, skiers, runners, cyclers, etc.
View Talent Search Talent. Experience Models. Please choose Gender Female. Age All. Urban Kids. Ethnicity All. Search Cancel. About Urban Urban Talent Management, Utah's top booking agency, has been booking models and actors for 23 years.If you want to be an urban model, you will be in for a surprise.
Yet, with the advent of hip-hop music and hip-hop culture, urban models are more popular than ever.
There are others like singer Tyrese who also work in this genre. Do your research. Like any job, modeling requires knowledge. So you should go to the library and read as many books as you can on the subject, so you can understand it.
Take a modeling class. Regardless of whether you are an urban model or department store model, you need to know how to pose, walk and stand. You can get this through a modeling class. Be sure to go to a licensed one with a good reputation and possible a few connections.
It will give you an extra edge. Get a makeover. You want to look the part of an urban model, so you should get a makeover. Set up a portfolio book. This book should have pictures of you posing in different ways.
Your portfolio will be like a visual resume of your abilities to model. Get an agent and go on interviews. These two usually go hand and hand. The most successful models urban or not have agents.
These agents are people who act as liaisons between you and a person who wants to hire you for a modeling job. For a fee, they set up jobs for you. You will have to interview with them first and be picked up as a client. Most people like to go to the big modeling agencies first and then work their way down if rejected. Even if your first gig as an urban model is at a church social, take it. The more you work, the more your name is spread around to potential clients.
This article was written by a professional writer, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information. To submit your questions or ideas, or to simply learn more, see our about us page: link below. How to Become an Urban Model Contributor.
Warning Beware of agents promising you success, but ask for your money. Stay clear of these people. About the Author.
Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.Walk through most contemporary cities, and the mazes of concrete and steel can be some of the most intimidating and confusing places to visit. Buildings rise up dozens of stories from the street and spread for miles out of view. Despite how hectic cities and their surrounding areas can be, attempts at creating models of the way cities function have been made and analyzed to make our understanding of the urban environment richer.
One of the first models created for use by academics was the concentric zone model, developed in the s by urban sociologist Ernest Burgess. What Burgess wanted to model was Chicago's spatial structure with regards to the usage of "zones" around the city. These zones radiated from Chicago's center, The Loop, and moved concentrically outward. In the example of Chicago, Burgess designated five different zones that had separate functions spatially.
The first zone was The Loop, the second zone was the belt of factories that were directly outside of The Loop, the third zone included homes of laborers who worked in the factories, the fourth zone contained middle-class residences, and the fifth and final zone hugged the first four zones and contained the homes of the suburban upper class.
Keep in mind that Burgess developed the zone during an industrial movement in America and these zones worked mainly for American cities at the time. Attempts at applying the model to European cities have failed, as many cities in Europe have their upper classes located centrally, whereas American cities have their upper classes mostly at the periphery. The five names for each zone in the concentric zone model are as follows:. Since the concentric zone model isn't applicable to many cities, some other academics attempted to further model the urban environment.
One of these academics was Homer Hoyt, a land economist who was mostly interested in taking a look at rents within a city as a means of modeling the city's layout. The Hoyt model also known as the sector modelwhich was developed intook into account the effect of transportation and communication on a city's growth. His thoughts were that rents could remain relatively consistent in certain "slices" of the model, from the downtown center all the way to the suburban fringe, giving the model a pie-like look.
This model has been found to work especially well in British cities. A third well-known model is the multiple-nuclei model. This model was developed in by geographers Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman to try and further describe a city's layout. Harris and Ullman made the argument that the city's downtown core CBD was losing its importance in relation to the rest of the city and should be seen less as the focal point of a city and instead as a nucleus within the metropolitan area.
The automobile began to become increasingly important during this time, which made for greater movement of residents to the suburbs. Since this was taken into consideration, the multiple-nuclei model is a good fit for sprawling and expansive cities.
These nuclei develop into independent areas because of their activities. For example, some economic activities that support one another for instance, universities and bookstores will create a nucleus.